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Medical Scholarship: Reference Examples

A handy guide for your medical scholarship adventures

This guide offers general guidelines and select examples of AMA citing and reference style. It is NOT a substitute for the AMA Manual.  It is strongly recommended that you use EndNote, or other citation management tool to aid in organizing and citing references. 

Select Examples

Refer to sections 3.1.1 Bibliographic Grouping and 3.4 Minimum Acceptable Data for References for help with general rules and guidance on creating references that conform to AMA Style rules.  

The following are examples of how to cite commonly encountered publication types in AMA Style. See the AMA Manual of Style for detailed information and rules on citing sources and for more examples of publication types. 

Journal Articles (See section 3.11 References to Journal Articles for more information and other examples)

-Online or print journal article with a DOI  (If available always include a DOI whether it is a print or online article)

1. Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA, Watanabe Y. The conserved kinetochore protein shugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 2004;427(6974):510-517. doi:10.1038/nature02312

-Online Journal article without a DOI (Include a URL directly to the article, do not include URLs that route through Rowan sites or authentication) 

2. Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. Accessed June 1, 2019.

-Online journal article with no page numbers (Some online only articles do not have page number and may use other identifiers, e.g. by article or document number.

3. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; (10): CD001321. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub5.

Books (See section 3.12 References to Books for more information and other examples)

-Online book 

4. Sudarsky L. Gait and balance disorders. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw- Hill; 2015:chap 32. Accessed February 10, 2016. http:// index.php

5. Sudarsky L. Gait and balance disorders. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw- Hill; 2015:chap 32. Accessed February 10, 2016.

-Print book 

6. Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks W, et al, eds. Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Saunders; 2014.

7. Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Vol 2. McGraw- Hill Professional; 2015.

-Book editors and citing chapters within a book

8. Blumenthal DK, Garrison JC. Pharmacodynamics: molecular mecha-nisms of drug actions. In: Bunton LL, ed. Chabner BA, Knollmann BC, associate eds. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12th ed. McGraw- Hill Education; 2011:41- 72.

Websites (See section 3.15.3 Websites for more information and other examples)

9. The path to understanding diabetes. Accessed October 2, 2019.

10. Health information for travelers to Thailand Traveler View. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Updated August 2, 2019. Accessed October 2, 2019

Social Media (see section 3.15.4 Social Media for more information and other examples)

-YouTube video

11. How to use EndNote 20 in seven minutes: Windows. YouTube. Posted November 12, 2020. Accessed January 13, 2020.

12. ABC News. Understanding the COVID-19 vaccine. YouTube. Posted Dec 4, 2020. Accessed January 13, 2020.


13. @AMAManual. Listen to the JAMA podcast on Parkinson disease for an explanation of why AMA style does not use the 's (possessive eponym). We chime in at around 18:00. Posted February 11, 2020. Accessed February 15, 2020.

Government/Agency Reports (See section 3.13.2 Government or Agency Reports for more information and other examples)

14. Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma - Summary Report 2007. U.S. Dept of Health, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 2007. Accessed October 9, 2019.

15. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. World Medical Association. 2002. Accessed February 26, 2004.

16. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Questions and Answers About Sprains and Strains. National Institutes of Health; 2015. NIH publication 15- 5328. Accessed January 28, 2016. Info/ Sprains_Strains/ default.asp

What Style Should I Use?

The AMA publication style developed by the American Medical Association provides a set of standards for the writing and formatting of documents. Using a publication style assures uniformity within a document and across multiple documents. 

Papers and presentations in the Medical Scholarship course at Rowan-Virtua SOM are required to follow the AMA publication style.  If using EndNote to manage your citations and references use either the JAMA or AMA 11th publication output style.